The aim of the Pelagos Sanctuary is "to ensure a favorable conservation status for marine mammals by protecting them and their habitats from the direct and indirect negative impacts of human activities" (art. 4 of the Agreement). To this end, the signatory countries committed to identifying the threats posed to cetacean populations by these activities and taking appropriate measures to regulate them.

This section sets out the activities that can have negative impacts on the marine mammals in the Sanctuary.

The schema below is an attempt to comprehensively summarize the different human activities as well as the consequences that these can cause to marine mammal populations.